Reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in the prefrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder. - Dr Drew Ramsey MD

The omega-3 fat DHA is essential for healthy brain – it is a primary component of neurons and is also converted to molecules that protect the brain. For most people DHA comes from the diet, but you also make DHA in your liver. This study looks at the enzymes in the liver that make DHA. It shows that those with major depressive disorder have less expression of the genes that make DHA. The genes involved in making long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid, both required for good health, are not as present ie “down-regulated” in the prefrontal cortex of MDD patients. The study was only 10 patients, but this was of human brains postmortem, which is quite interesting data. I’ve been seeing a lot of data on DHA and suicide and I wonder if this pathway provides the sort of Biosignatures that my colleague Maria Oquendo, MD is investigating?

Authors RK McNamara, Y Liu
Institution Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Publication Name Journal of Affective Disorders
Publication Date March 2011

BACKGROUND:
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with central and peripheral deficits in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly those in the omega-3 fatty acid family. However, the etiology of these deficits remains poorly understood, and there is currently little known about the expression of genes that mediate fatty acid biosynthesis in MDD patients.
METHODS:
The expression of FADS1 (Δ5 desaturase), FADS2 (Δ6 desaturase), HELO1 [ELOVL5] (elongase), PEX19 (peroxisome), and SCD (stearoyl-CoA desaturase [Δ9 desaturase]) was determined in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of MDD patients (n=10) and non-psychiatric controls (n=10) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
RESULTS:
After correcting for multiple comparisons, FADS1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in MDD patients relative to controls (-27%, p=0.009), and there were trends for lower expression of FADS2 (-30%, p=0.07), HELO1 (-37%, p=0.02), and SCD (-43%, p=0.02). PEX19 mRNA expression did not differ between controls and MDD patients (-2%, p=0.92). There were no significant gender effects, and relative reductions in FADS1, HELO1, and SCD expression were greater in patients that did not commit suicide compared with patients that did commit suicide.
LIMITATIONS:
The sample size was small, and all MDD patients were receiving antidepressant medications.
CONCLUSIONS:
Principal genes involved in LC-PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis are down-regulated in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of MDD patients. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings in a larger sample that includes antidepressant-free MDD patients.

Eat Complete

Winner of a 2017 IACP Cookbook Award  •  Finalist for a Books for a Better Life Award

Named one of the top health and wellness books for 2016 by Well + Good and MindBodyGreen

 

From leading psychiatrist and author of Fifty Shades of Kale comes a collection of 100 simple, delicious, and affordable recipes to help you get the core nutrients your brain and body need to stay happy and healthy.

What does food have to do with brain health? Everything.

Your brain burns more of the food you eat than any other organ. It determines if you gain or lose weight, if you’re feeling energetic or fatigued, if you’re upbeat or depressed. In this essential guide and cookbook, Drew Ramsey, MD, explores the role the human brain plays in every part of your life, including mood, health, focus, memory, and appetite, and reveals what foods you need to eat to keep your brain—and by extension your body—properly fueled.

Drawing upon cutting-edge scientific research, Dr. Ramsey identifies the twenty-one nutrients most important to brain health and overall well-being—the very nutrients that are often lacking in most people’s diets. Without these nutrients, he emphasizes, our brains and bodies don’t run the way they should.

Eat Complete includes 100 appetizing, easy, gluten-free recipes engineered for optimal nourishment. It also teaches readers how to use food to correct the nutrient deficiencies causing brain drain and poor health for millions. For example:

• Start the day with an Orange Pecan Waffle or a Turmeric Raspberry Almond Smoothie, and the Vitamin E found in the nuts will work to protect vulnerable brain fat (plus the fiber keeps you satisfied until lunch).

• Enjoy Garlic Butter Shrimp over Zucchini Noodles and Mussels with Garlicky Kale Ribbons and Artichokes, and the zinc and magnesium from the seafood will help stimulate the growth of new brain cells.

• Want to slow down your brain’s aging process? Indulge with a cup of Turmeric Cinnamon Hot Chocolate, and the flavanols found in chocolate both increase blood flow to the brain and help fight age-related memory decline.

Featuring fifty stunning, full-color photographs, Eat Complete helps you pinpoint the nutrients missing from your diet and gives you tasty recipes to transform your health—and ultimately your life.

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The Happiness Diet

For the first time in history, too much food is making us sick. It's all too apparent that the Modern American Diet (MAD) is expanding our waistlines; what's less obvious is that it's starving and shrinking our brains. Rates of obesity and depression have recently doubled, and while these epidemics are closely linked, few experts are connecting the dots for the average American.

Using the latest data from the rapidly changing fields of neuroscience and nutrition, The Happiness Dietshows that over the past several generations small, seemingly insignificant changes to our diet have stripped it of nutrients--like magnesium, vitamin B12, iron, and vitamin D, as well as some very special fats--that are essential for happy, well-balanced brains. These shifts also explain the overabundance of mood-destroying foods in the average American's diet and why they predispose most of us to excessive weight gain.

After a clear explanation of how we've all been led so far astray, The Happiness Diet empowers the reader with simple, straightforward solutions. Graham and Ramsey show you how to steer clear of this MAD way of life with foods to swear off, shopping tips, brain-building recipes, and other practical advice, and then remake your diet by doubling down on feel-good foods--even the all-American burger.

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Fifty Shades of Kale

Kale gets sexy in Fifty Shades of Kale by Drew Ramsey, M.D., and Jennifer Iserloh, with 50 recipes that are mouth-wateringly delicious and do a body good.
 
Release yourself from the bondage of guilt and start cooking meals with the ingredients you love: meat, cheese, and yes—even butter. Nutrient-rich kale provides essential vitamins and minerals to keep you healthy, happy, and lean—so you can indulge in your most delicious desires. Whether you’re a cooking novice or a real kale submissive, you will undoubtedly succumb to Kale’s charms.

From Mushroom and Kale Risotto to Kale Kiwi Gazpacho, Fifty Shade of Kale offers simple ways to have your kale and eat it, too, as well as nutritional information, cooking tips, and a tutorial on kale in all her glorious shades.
 
Indulge your culinary passions with Fifty Shades of Kale: 50 Fresh and Satisfying Recipes That Are Bound to Please.

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